10 Minute Vim!

Learn To Database

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"... and it has to return 45,000 records a minute, or we are all screwed."

Monday morning, we inherited a legacy codebase. Tuesday, the word came down on stone tablets. Forty-five thousand records a minute, and no amount of political maneuvering or incremental gains were going to do. Too many broken promises. The last team mass quit over three months, leaving us the two most junior developers. Someone high up promised big, and the buck stopped with us.

"Does anyone even know the throughput now?"

We still don't even have the dumb thing running on our machines. Two weeks later we have it running and enough data to test it. 2500 records a minute. When scaled to 45000 records it is still going 30 minutes later, so it doesn't even scale linearly. We are screwed.

Most of us are front-end developers who stepped forward when everyone else stepped back. Databases are a distant memory, something we maybe did a few jobs back. You "join" tables, right? What we know of this process is it selects from 2-3 dozen databases using an ORM while running through an engine that does some supposedly massive calculations on the data, returning a message with several hundred fields. It can't be that hard to speed up.

"We need a new architecture, with read-optimized databases and queue-based messaging."

None of us have ever built such a system, but we have read about it, and like the faithful we nod solemnly in agreement. Why not? If the database is read-optimized, surely it will perform like we need. But a few desist.

Like paratroopers dropped into unknown territory without a map, we start to canvas the code, looking for landmarks. We split into two teams, one to try to speed up the current system, the other to start on the new architecture. Two teams trying two different approaches doubles our chances, right? Whiteboards around our desks fill with maps, glossaries, and diagrams. My team starts to dissect this mostly home-made ORM.

"Why is this selecting from the same table twice?"

The ORM generated query selects a list of id's from table A, then puts those id's into a list as a filter for the same table:


We scratch our heads a bit, but hey, that can't hurt anything, surely the database figures that sort of stuff out? Isn't that what... indexes do? Our most database-savvy developer can't stop coming back to that query. He says it doesn't smell right. Finally, he takes out the "WHERE IN" filter, shims in the query, and runs the process.

"Guys, the whole thing, all 45k came back in 40 seconds."

We scoff at him, good joke! Our profiling showed time chewed up fairly evenly at every level throughout the entire process, not just the initial query. So the process came back, just empty, right? And who knows what Ancient Ones you disturbed by messing around with what the ORM generates, it will probably never work again. We run it again, 40 seconds, correct count of records. Odd, freak coincidence. We run it with the old filter still in place, it comes back 30+ minutes later, same exact data. Whoa, wait, what?

Turns out, this ORM uses SELECT-WHERE-IN for every entity join. That first SELECT FROM A WHERE ID IN (SELECT ID FROM A WHERE ...) was used as the base criteria for every single lazy look-up of every entity on A, which were legion. What looked like slowness across the entire process was really ORM lazy loading at every level, with that first SELECT-WHERE-IN as the final filter in a line of nested SELECTS, some four levels deep. That initial bad query gets run countless times, and when it is slow, the whole system is slow.

This is the story of how I learned an important lesson: if you are going to database, LEARN TO DATABASE.

steve shogren

software developer, manager, author, speaker

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